Payment plugins integrate Kill Bill with a specific gateway (i.e. payment processor), such as Stripe or Braintree. We already have many open-source payment plugins available on GitHub as follows:

  1. killbill-stripe-plugin - Plugin to use Stripe as the payment gateway

  2. killbill-adyen-plugin - Plugin to use Adyen as the payment gateway

  3. killbill-qualpay-plugin - Plugin to use QualPay as the payment gateway

This guide will give you pointers in case you need to develop your own payment plugin.

Before reading this guide, make sure to familiarize yourself with payment components and the payment userguide.

Developing a Payment Plugin

We provide an interface called PaymentPluginApi. This is the interface between Kill Bill and payment plugins. In order to create your own payment plugin, you need to create a class that implements this interface and implement the methods in this interface.

We provide a plugin framework which has many classes that can be used out of the box for plugin development. We strongly encourage you to use this library.

Getting Started

We provide a simple Hello World Plugin that can be used as the starting point to develop your payment plugin. The Hello World Plugin already includes the plugin framework.

In order to get started with your own payment plugin, you need to do the following:

  1. Set up the Hello World Plugin as per our plugin development document.

  2. Create a new Maven project similar to Hello World Plugin

  3. Create a class similar to HelloWorldPaymentPluginApi.java. This is a reference class that is included in the Hello World Plugin. It implements the PaymentPluginApi interface.

  4. Implement the desired methods from the PaymentPluginApi interface within your class. These methods are explained in the [_paymentpluginapi_methods] table below.

  5. Create a class similar to HelloWorldActivator. This class will be responsible for starting the plugin.

PaymentPluginApi Methods

The following table lists the methods in PaymentPluginApi interface. You can implement the desired methods in your plugin class.

Method NameMethod Description

authorizePayment/ capturePayment

Should trigger an authorization and capture respectfully (applies to credit cards only)

purchasePayment

Should trigger a generic payment (authorization with auto-capture for credit cards, ACH/SEPA, etc.)

voidPayment

Should void an authorization (credit cards only)

creditPayment

Should fund the payment method from your merchant account (similar to a refund, but no prior payment is required: this can be used to initiate an ACH for disbursement for instance)

refundPayment

Should reverse an existing (settled) charge

getPaymentInfo

Should return detailed information on the transactions for that payment (arbitrary properties can be populated in PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin#getProperties)

searchPayments

Should return payment transactions matching the specified searchKey (the implementation is up to the plugin)

addPaymentMethod

Should create the payment method in the gateway (e.g. store a token)

deletePaymentMethod

Should delete the payment method in the gateway (e.g. revoke a token)

getPaymentMethodDetail

Should return detailed information about the payment method (e.g. billing address)

setDefaultPaymentMethod

Should mark the payment method as the default one in the gateway (if the associated account in the gateway has several payment methods)

getPaymentMethods

Should list the payment methods in the gateway for that account (used by the refresh endpoint, when payment methods are added directly in the gateway, bypassing addPaymentMethod)

searchPaymentMethods

Should return payment methods matching the specified searchKey (the implementation is up to the plugin)

resetPaymentMethods

Called at the end of a refresh call, should associate to that account the payment methods specified (this is useful if Kill Bill knows payment methods that are not yet in the gateway)

buildFormDescriptor

Should return enough metadata for the front-end to build a form or a redirect to a hosted payment page

processNotification

Should process payloads from the gateway to transition payments states

A few pointers for implementing these methods:

  • Almost all the PaymentPluginApi methods accept parameters like Kill Bill account Id, Kill Bill payment id, Kill Bill transaction id, etc which are self-explanatory. These may or may not be used by your plugin code. But you may need some of these values to populate the [_paymenttransactioninfoplugin] object which is returned by most of the methods.

  • All the methods listed in the PaymentPluginApi also accept Iterable<PluginProperty> properties as a parameter. A PluginProperty consists of a key-value pair. It can be used to pass plugin specific properties to the plugin. For example, if your plugin requires properties like city=San Francisco and billing_address=abc, a client application can create two PluginProperty objects and pass a List of these objects.

  • All the methods listed in the PaymentPluginApi also accept as parameter either a TenantContext or a CallContext. Read only operations (operations which retrieve some data from Kill Bill) like the getPaymentInfo accept a TenantContext. Read/write operations like authorizePayment accept a CallContext. Both these values can be used for auditing purposes.

  • It is quite possible that your plugin might not support some of the operations listed above. In such a case, the plugin can do one of the following:

    • Return an empty list when the return type is a list

    • Return a transaction with status CANCELED if the return type is a PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin

    • Return empty objects otherwise

PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin

Most of the methods in the PaymentPluginApi return a PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object. Again, the Kill Bill Plugin framework includes a class called PluginPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin which implements the PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin. You can create a class that extends this class and have the plugin methods return this object.

The PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin has the following methods (Your plugin code needs to populate this information in the PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object and a client application can then invoke these methods to retrieve this information):

Method Name

Method Description

getKbPaymentId

Returns Payment Id in Kill Bill

getKbTransactionPaymentId

Returns Transaction Payment Id in Kill Bill

getTransactionType

Returns the transaction type (TransactionType object)

getAmount

Returns the processed amount

getCurrency

Returns the processed currency

getCreatedDate

Returns the date when the payment was created

getEffectiveDate

Returns the date when the payment is effective

getStatus

Returns the payment status (PaymentPluginStatus object)

getGatewayError

Returns the gateway error if any

getGatewayErrorCode

Returns the gateway error code if any

getFirstPaymentReferenceId

Returns gateway specific first payment id if any

getSecondPaymentReferenceId

Returns gateway specific second payment id if any

getProperties

Returns a PluginProperty List. This can be used to return plugin specific properties to the client API

It is very important to correctly populate the PaymentPluginStatus in the PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object. The following table elaborates how the status should be populated:

StatusStatus Description

PROCESSED

Indicates that the payment is successful

ERROR

Indicates that the payment is rejected by the gateway (insufficient funds, fails AVS check, fraud detected, etc.)

PENDING

Indicates that the payment requires a completion step (3D-S verification, HPP, etc.)

CANCELED

Indicates that the gateway wasn’t contacted (DNS error, SSL handshake error, socket connect timeout, etc.)

UNDEFINED

Should be used for all other cases (socket read timeout, 500 returned, etc.)

Kill Bill has a Janitor system in place that attempts to fix PENDING and UNKNOWN states . It polls the plugin via PaymentPluginApi#getPaymentInfo method. If the plugin subsequently returns PROCESSED, the Janitor updates the internal payment state as well as invoice balance, etc.) accordingly.

The Janitor matches the internal transactions against plugin transactions via the transaction id, so make sure PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin#getKbTransactionPaymentId is correctly implemented.

You should try to avoid UNDEFINED as much as possible, because it is the only case where Kill Bill cannot retry payments (since the payment may or may not have happened).

GoCardless Plugin Tutorial

In order to demonstrate creating a payment plugin, we will be creating a Kill Bill payment plugin for GoCardless. GoCardless allows direct debit from customer’s bank accounts. It requires a customer to set up a mandate the first time. A mandate is an authorisation from a customer to take payments from their bank account. Once a mandate is set up, it directly collects payments against the mandate.

GoCardless provides a client library. We will be using this library to integrate GoCardless with Kill Bill. For the sake of simplicity, we will be creating a very basic plugin that can only process payments. Refunds, credits and other plugin functionality will currently not be implemented.

The complete code for this tutorial is available at Github.

How GoCardless works

The first step in GoCardless would be adding a customer and setting up a payment mandate. GoCardless supports three ways to do this as explained here. In this tutorial, we will be using the hosted payment page approach which is explained here.

The diagram below explains the steps involved. We consider the following actors:

Browser: user sitting behind a browser and initiating the payment flow

Merchant Site: customer facing web site which receives the order

GoCardless: The GoCardless payment system

Bank - Customer’s bank which processes the payments

How Go Cardless Works

  1. A user enters his/her payment details on a merchant site.

  2. The merchant site initiates the GoCardless Redirect flow with the customer details (optional) and a success page URL.

  3. GoCardless returns a redirect URL.

  4. The merchant site redirects the user to this URL.

  5. The user manually enters bank details at this page.

  6. If successful, GoCardless redirects the user to the success page URL sent to it in step 1.

  7. The merchant site completes the GoCardless Redirect flow .

  8. GoCardless then actually sets up the mandate with the customer’s bank.

  9. If successful, it returns a mandate Id to the merchant site.

  10. The merchant site then charges the customer against the mandate Id as required.

Using GoCardless from Kill Bill

In order to use GoCardless from Kill Bill, we will need to create a payment plugin corresponding to GoCardless. Since we are developing a very basic plugin that can only process payments, we only need to do the following:

  1. Set up the mandate. This is a two step process as explained above where:

    1. Step 1 involves redirecting the user to a page to manually confirm setting up the mandate. This can be implemented via the PaymentPluginApi#buildFormDescriptor method

    2. Step 2 involves completing the GoCardless flow and retrieving the mandate Id. This can be implemented via the PaymentPluginApi#addPaymentMethod method

  2. Implement the PaymentPluginApi#purchasePayment method to charge the customer

The diagram below explains the end-to-end flow. We consider the following actors:

Browser: user sitting behind a browser and initiating the payment flow

Merchant Site: customer facing web site which receives the order

Kill Bill - The Kill Bill system

Checkout Servlet - Servlet that initiates setting up the payment method. This is explained further in detail

GoCardless Plugin: Payment plugin corresponding to GoCardless that can process payments using the GoCardless system

GoCardless: The GoCardless payment system

Using GoCardless From KillBill

  1. A user enters his/her payment details on a merchant site.

  2. The merchant site invokes the Checkout Servlet.

  3. The Checkout Servlet invokes the GoCarldessPlugin#buildFormDescriptor.

  4. The GoCarldessPlugin#buildFormDescriptor method invokes the redirectFlows().create(). This initiates the GoCardless redirect flow and returns the redirect URL .

  5. The merchant site redirects the user to this URL.

  6. The user manually enters bank details on this page.

  7. GoCardless redirects the user to the success page.

  8. The merchant site invokes the KillBill#addPaymentMethod which in turn invokes GoCardlessPlugin#addPaymentMethod.

  9. The GoCarldessPlugin#addPaymentMethod invokes redirectFlows().complete. This completes the redirect flow and returns the mandate id which is saved in the Kill Bill database.

  10. The merchant site can then invoke KillBill#purchasePayment as required. This in turn invokes GoCardlessPlugin#purchasePayment.

  11. The GoCardlessPlugin#purchasePayment invokes the payments().create() to charge the customer against the saved mandate id as explained here.

Creating the GoCardless Plugin

Let us now understand how we can create a payment plugin for GoCardless.

Step 1 - Initial Setup

The first step in creating a payment plugin would be to create a new Maven project. For this we need to do the following:

  1. Create a new Maven project

  2. Copy the Hello World Plugin pom.xml

  3. Generate a GoCardless access token (https://manage-sandbox.gocardless.com/developers) and create an environment variable GC_ACCESS_TOKEN with this token

Step 2 - Creating GoCardlessPluginApi

We will first need to create a class similar to HelloWorldPaymentPluginApi that implements the PaymentPluginApi interface. We can create this class as follows:

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public class GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi implements PaymentPluginApi {
	private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi.class);
	private OSGIKillbillAPI killbillAPI;
	private Clock clock;
	private static String GC_ACCESS_TOKEN_PROPERTY = "GC_ACCESS_TOKEN";
    private GoCardlessClient client;
    public GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi(final OSGIKillbillAPI killbillAPI,final Clock clock) {
		this.killbillAPI = killbillAPI;
		this.clock = clock;
		client = GoCardlessClient.newBuilder(System.getenv(GC_ACCESS_TOKEN_PROPERTY)).withEnvironment(GoCardlessClient.Environment.SANDBOX).build();
	}
	//other methods
}
  • The GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi implements the PaymentPluginApi interface.

  • It declares the following fields:

    • killbillAPI - This is of type OSGIKillbillAPI. The OSGIKillBillAPI is a Kill Bill class which exposes all of Kill Bill’s internal APIs.

    • GC_ACCESS_TOKEN_PROPERTY - This is a String field that is required for accessing the GoCardless access token

    • clock - This is of type Clock. This is part of Kill Bill’s clock library.

    • client This is of type GoCardlessClient. This is a GoCardless specific class that can be used to access the GoCardless API

  • The constructor simply initializes the fields with the values passed in. In addition, it also creates a GoCardless client and initializes the client field

Within this class, we need to implement the buildFormDescriptor, addPaymentMethod and purchasePayment as explained in the [_using_gocardless_from_kill_bill] section above.

Step 3 - Creating GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin

As explained earlier, most of the PaymentPluginApi methods return a [_paymenttransactioninfoplugin] object. Thus, we need to create a class corresponding to this as follows:

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public class GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin extends PluginPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin{
	public GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin(UUID kbPaymentId, UUID kbTransactionPaymentPaymentId,
			TransactionType transactionType, BigDecimal amount, Currency currency, PaymentPluginStatus pluginStatus,
			String gatewayError, String gatewayErrorCode, String firstPaymentReferenceId,
			String secondPaymentReferenceId, DateTime createdDate, DateTime effectiveDate,
			List<PluginProperty> properties) {
		super(kbPaymentId, kbTransactionPaymentPaymentId, transactionType, amount, currency, pluginStatus, gatewayError,
				gatewayErrorCode, firstPaymentReferenceId, secondPaymentReferenceId, createdDate, effectiveDate, properties);
	}

}

Step 4 - Implementing GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi#buildFormDescriptor

The buildFormDesciptor is typically used for hosted payment flows to display a form where a user can enter his/her payment details. In the case of GoCardless, we will be using it to initiate the Gocardless redirect flow in GoCardless and obtain the redirect URL. This method can be implemented as follows:

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public HostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor buildFormDescriptor(UUID kbAccountId, Iterable<PluginProperty> customFields,
	Iterable<PluginProperty> properties, CallContext context) throws PaymentPluginApiException {
	logger.info("buildFormDescriptor, kbAccountId=" + kbAccountId);
	// retrieve properties
	String successRedirectUrl = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("success_redirect_url", properties); // "https://developer.gocardless.com/example-redirect-uri/"; - this is the URL to which GoCardless will redirect after users set up the  mandate
	String redirectFlowDescription = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("redirect_flow_description",properties);
	String sessionToken = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("session_token", properties); PrefilledCustomer customer = buildCustomer(customFields);// build a PrefilledCuctomer object from custom fields if present
	RedirectFlow redirectFlow = client.redirectFlows().create().withDescription(redirectFlowDescription)
			.withSessionToken(sessionToken)
			.withSuccessRedirectUrl(successRedirectUrl).withPrefilledCustomer(customer).execute();
	logger.info("RedirectFlow Id", redirectFlow.getId());
	logger.info("RedirectFlow URL", redirectFlow.getRedirectUrl());
	PluginHostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor pluginHostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor = new PluginHostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor(
			kbAccountId, redirectFlow.getRedirectUrl());
	return pluginHostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor;
}
  • The buildFormDescriptor method accepts Iterable<PluginProperty> properties as a parameter. As explained above, a PluginProperty can be used to pass a plugin specific key-value pair to a plugin.

  • The code first retrieves the successRedirectUrl, redirectFlowDescription and sessionToken sent by the client application from the properties passed in. These are required by GoCardless and are as explained below:

    • successRedirectUrl - Indicates the page to which the user should be redirected after setting up the mandate successfully.

    • redirectFlowDescription - is a description that is displayed on the payment page (page where the user is redirected to set up the mandate)

    • sessionToken - is something that identifies the user’s session on the client application. GoCardless requires this to be supplied while creating the redirect flow (now, while invoking the buildFormDescriptor method), and while completing the redirect flow (when the addPaymentMethod is invoked) it at the end. Supplying this token twice makes sure that the person who completed the redirect flow is the person who initiated it.

  • Next, the client.redirectFlows().create() is invoked with the successRedirectUrl, redirectFlowDescription and sessionToken. This returns a RedirectFlow object. The RedirectFlow object contains the redirect URL.

  • Finally, a HostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor object is created using the redirect URL and the Kill Bill Account Id. This is then returned to the client application.

Step 5 - Implementing GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi#addPaymentMethod

The addPaymentMethod is typically used to add a payment method in Kill Bill corresponding to a customer/account. In the case of GoCardless, we will be using it to complete the redirect flow. So, this method can be implemented as follows:

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public void addPaymentMethod(UUID kbAccountId, UUID kbPaymentMethodId, PaymentMethodPlugin paymentMethodProps,
		boolean setDefault, Iterable<PluginProperty> properties, CallContext context)
		throws PaymentPluginApiException {
	logger.info("addPaymentMethod, kbAccountId=" + kbAccountId);
	final Iterable<PluginProperty> allProperties = PluginProperties.merge(paymentMethodProps.getProperties(),
			properties);
	String redirectFlowId = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("redirect_flow_id", allProperties);  //retrieve the redirect flow id
	String sessionToken = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("session_token", allProperties);
	try {
		//Use the redirect flow id to "complete" the GoCardless flow
		RedirectFlow redirectFlow = client.redirectFlows().complete(redirectFlowId).withSessionToken(sessionToken).execute();
		String mandateId = redirectFlow.getLinks().getMandate(); //obtain mandate id from the redirect flow
		logger.info("MandateId:", mandateId);
		try {
			//save Mandate id in the Kill Bill database
			killbillAPI.getCustomFieldUserApi().addCustomFields(ImmutableList.of(new PluginCustomField(kbAccountId,
					ObjectType.ACCOUNT, "GOCARDLESS_MANDATE_ID", mandateId, clock.getUTCNow())), context);
		} catch (CustomFieldApiException e) {
			logger.warn("Error occured while saving mandate id", e);
			throw new PaymentPluginApiException("Error occured while saving mandate id", e);
		}
	} catch (GoCardlessApiException e) {
		logger.warn("Error occured while completing the GoCardless flow", e.getType(), e);
		throw new PaymentPluginApiException("Error occured while completing the GoCardless flow", e);
	}
}
  • Like other methods, the addPaymentMethod method also accepts Iterable<PluginProperty> properties as a parameter.

  • In addition, it also accepts PaymentMethodPlugin paymentMethodProps as a parameter.

  • PaymentMethodPlugin is a generic object that represents a payment method (creditcard, bank account, etc.). It has a getProperties method that returns a List<PluginProperty>.

  • The properties parameter is typically used to pass properties which are related to the specific method call (addPaymentMethod in this case) while the PaymentMethodPlugin#getProperties typically refers to non-standard generic information about the payment method itself.

  • A client application can use either of these to pass in the GoCardless properties. The code above (like other plugins) is lenient and accepts both ways. So, it first invokes PluginProperties.merge to merge both properties and stores them into a merged allProperties list

  • It then retrieves the redirectFlowId and sessionToken from allProperties. These are required by GoCardless and are as explained below:

    • redirectFlowId - If you recall, the redirectFlowId is sent to a client application after the buildFormDescriptor method call. A client application needs to send this back.

    • sessionToken - As explained earlier, a client application needs to send the same sessionToken that was sent at the time of creating the redirect flow (when the buildFormDescriptor method was invoked) to ensure that the person who completes the redirect flow is the person who initiated it.

  • Next, the client.redirectFlows().complete is invoked with the redirectFlowId and the sessionToken. This returns a RedirectFlow object which contains the mandate Id.

  • Finally, the mandateId is stored in the Kill Bill database. Normally, each plugin has its own plugin specific tables. However, since we are not creating a full-fledged GoCardless plugin, we are storing the mandateId in the custom_fields table. The custom_fields table can be used to store arbitrary key/value pairs in the Kill Bill database.

  • In case an error occurs in any of the steps, the code throws a PaymentPluginApiException

Step 6 - Implementing GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi#purchasePayment

The purchasePayment is used to charge a customer against a payment method. So, once a user sets up a payment method as done above, the purchasePayment method can be used by a client application to trigger payments against a mandateId. So, this method can be implemented as follows:

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public PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin purchasePayment(UUID kbAccountId, UUID kbPaymentId, UUID kbTransactionId,
		UUID kbPaymentMethodId, BigDecimal amount, Currency currency, Iterable<PluginProperty> properties,
		CallContext context) throws PaymentPluginApiException {
	logger.info("purchasePayment, kbAccountId=" + kbAccountId);
	PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin paymentTransactionInfoPlugin;
	String mandate = getMandateId(kbAccountId, context); // retrieve mandateId from Kill Bill tables
	logger.info("MandateId="+mandate);
	if (mandate != null) {
		logger.info("Processing payment");
		try {
			String idempotencyKey = PluginProperties.findPluginPropertyValue("idempotencykey", properties);
			com.gocardless.services.PaymentService.PaymentCreateRequest.Currency goCardlessCurrency = convertKillBillCurrencyToGoCardlessCurrency(
					currency);
			Payment payment = client.payments().create()
					.withAmount(Math.toIntExact(KillBillMoney.toMinorUnits(currency.toString(), amount)))
					.withCurrency(goCardlessCurrency).withLinksMandate(mandate).withIdempotencyKey(idempotencyKey)
					.withMetadata("kbPaymentId", kbPaymentId.toString()).withMetadata("kbTransactionId", kbTransactionId.toString()) //added for getPaymentInfo
					.execute();
			List<PluginProperty> outputProperties = new ArrayList<PluginProperty>();
			outputProperties.add(new PluginProperty("paymentId", payment.getId(), false));
			paymentTransactionInfoPlugin = new GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin(kbPaymentId, kbTransactionId,
					TransactionType.PURCHASE, amount, currency, PaymentPluginStatus.PROCESSED, null, null,
					String.valueOf(payment.getId()), null, new DateTime(), new DateTime(payment.getCreatedAt()),
					outputProperties);
			logger.info("Payment processed, PaymentId="+payment.getId());
		} catch (GoCardlessApiException e) {
			paymentTransactionInfoPlugin = new GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin(kbPaymentId, kbTransactionId,
					TransactionType.PURCHASE, amount, currency, PaymentPluginStatus.ERROR, e.getErrorMessage(),
					String.valueOf(e.getCode()), null, null, new DateTime(), null, null);
			logger.warn("Error occured in purchasePayment", e.getType(), e);
		}
	} else {
		logger.warn("Unable to fetch mandate, so cannot process payment");
		paymentTransactionInfoPlugin = new GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin(kbPaymentId, kbTransactionId,
				TransactionType.PURCHASE, amount, currency, PaymentPluginStatus.CANCELED, null,
				null, null, null, new DateTime(), null, null);
	}
	return paymentTransactionInfoPlugin;
}
  • Like the other methods, the purchasePayment method accepts Iterable<PluginProperty> properties as a parameter.

  • In addition, it also accepts parameters corresponding to amount (specifies the amount to charge the customer) and currency (specifies the currency to be used)

  • If you recall, the addPaymentMethod stores the mandate id in the Kill Bill database. This is first retrieved and assigned to mandate

  • Next, the idempotencyKey is retrieved from the properties passed in. The idempotencyKey is a GoCardless specific value. As per the GoCardless documentation, their API will ensure this payment is only ever created once per idempotencyKey. So a client application could specify kbPaymentId as the idempotencyKey to ensure at most a single payment is created per kbPaymentId.

  • The currency object passed in is of type org.killbill.billing.catalog.api.Currency. This is then converted to a GoCardless Currency object (of type com.gocardless.services.PaymentService.PaymentCreateRequest.Currency). Most payment plugins have code similar to this to convert Kill Bill objects to compatible objects in the plugin’s client library.

  • Finally, the client.payments().create() is invoked with the idempotencyKey,amount and currency values. This returns a Payment object which contains a paymentId. Additionally, the kbPaymentId and kbTransactionId are sent as metadata to GoCardless in this call. GoCardless metadata allows an application to send custom key value pairs to GoCardless. These can then be retrieved later on as required. In our case, the kbPaymentId and kbTransactionId are required for the getPaymentInfo call which will be explained further.

  • The purchasePayment method returns a PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object. The [_paymenttransactioninfoplugin] section above explaind this interface in detail. We have already created a GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin class above.

  • If the payment is successful, the GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object is created with the following values:

    • kbPaymentId - Set to kbPaymentId. It corresponds to the Kill Bill payment id.

    • kbTransactionId - Set to kbTransactionId. It corresponds to the Kill Bill transaction id.

    • TransactionType - Set to TransactionType.PURCHASE since this is a purchase transaction

    • amount - Set to amount. It corresponds to the amount with which the customer is charged

    • currency - Set to currency. It corresponds to the currency in which the customer is charged

    • PaymentPluginStatus - Set to PaymentPluginStatus.PROCESSED since the payment is processed successfully

    • gatewayError - Set to null since there is no error

    • gatewayErrorCode - set to null since there is no error

    • firstPaymentReferenceId - Set to the payment Id returned by GoCardless

    • secondPaymentReferenceId - set to null since GoCardless does not have a secondPaymentReferenceId. Other payment plugins might use this parameter if required.

    • createdDate - Set to the current date

    • effectiveDate - Set to the date when the payment was created. This is retrieved from the payment object returned by GoCardless

    • properties - Set to a List<PluginProperty> called outputProperties which contains the GoCardless payment Id. The client API can use the properties as desired.

  • If there is an exception while processing the payment, the GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object is created with the following values :

    • PaymentPluginStatus - Set to PaymentPluginStatus.ERROR since there is an error in the payment

    • gatewayError - Set to the error message from the exception

    • gatewayErrorCode - Set to the error code from the exception

    • firstPaymentReferenceId - Set to null since the payment failed

    • effectiveDate - Set to null since the payment failed

    • properties - Set to null since the payment failed

  • If the code is unable to retrieve the mandateId from the Kill Bill database, the GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object is created with the following values:

    • PaymentPluginStatus - Set to PaymentPluginStatus.CANCELED since the gateway was not contacted as the plugin was unable to retrieve the mandateId

    • gatewayError - Set to null since there is no error

    • gatewayErrorCode - set to null since there is no error

    • firstPaymentReferenceId - Set to null since the payment was not processed

    • effectiveDate - Set to null since the payment was not processed

    • properties - Set to null since the payment was not processed

Step 7 - Implementing GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi#getPaymentInfo

As explained earlier, the Kill Bill Janitor system attempts to fix PENDING and UNKNOWN states by polling the plugin via PaymentPluginApi#getPaymentInfo method. So, this method can be implemented as follows:

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public List<PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin> getPaymentInfo(UUID kbAccountId, UUID kbPaymentId,
	Iterable<PluginProperty> properties, TenantContext context) throws PaymentPluginApiException {
	logger.info("getPaymentInfo");
	List<PaymentTransactionInfoPlugin> paymentTransactionInfoPluginList = new ArrayList<>();
	String mandateId = getMandateId(kbAccountId, context) ;
	logger.info("Mandate="+mandateId);
	Mandate mandate = client.mandates().get(mandateId).execute(); //get GoCardless Mandate object
	String customerId = mandate.getLinks().getCustomer(); //retrieve customer id from mandate
	logger.info("CustomerId="+customerId);
	Iterable<Payment> payments = client.payments().all().withCustomer(customerId).execute(); //get all payments related to customer
	for (Payment payment : payments) {
		String kbPaymentIdFromPayment = payment.getMetadata().get("kbPaymentId"); //get kbPaymentId from metadata in payment
		logger.info("kbPaymentIdFromPayment="+kbPaymentIdFromPayment);
		if(kbPaymentIdFromPayment != null && kbPaymentId.toString().equals(kbPaymentIdFromPayment)) {
			logger.info("Found matching payment");
			Currency killBillCurrency = convertGoCardlessCurrencyToKillBillCurrency(payment.getCurrency());
			logger.info("payment_status="+payment.getStatus());
			PaymentPluginStatus status = convertGoCardlessToKillBillStatus(payment.getStatus());
			String kbTransactionPaymentIdStr = payment.getMetadata().get("kbTransactionId");
			UUID kbTransactionPaymentId = kbTransactionPaymentIdStr !=null?UUID.fromString(kbTransactionPaymentIdStr):null;
			logger.info("kbTransactionPaymentId="+kbTransactionPaymentId);
			List<PluginProperty> outputProperties = new ArrayList<PluginProperty>();
			outputProperties.add(new PluginProperty("mandateId",mandateId,false)); //arbitrary data to be returned to the caller
			outputProperties.add(new PluginProperty("customerId",customerId,false));  //arbitrary data to be returned to the caller
			GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin paymentTransactionInfoPlugin = new GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin(
					kbPaymentId, kbTransactionPaymentId, TransactionType.PURCHASE, new BigDecimal(payment.getAmount()), killBillCurrency,
					status, null, null, String.valueOf(payment.getId()), null, new DateTime(),
					new DateTime(payment.getCreatedAt()), outputProperties);
			paymentTransactionInfoPluginList.add(paymentTransactionInfoPlugin);
		}
	}
	return paymentTransactionInfoPluginList;
}
  • If you recall, the addPaymentMethod stores the mandate id in the Kill Bill database in the custom_fields table. This is first retrieved and assigned to mandateId.

  • Next, the GoCardless Mandate object is retrieved via client.mandates().get(mandateId) as explained here.

  • Next, the customerId associated with the mandate is retrieved and all the payments associated with the customer are retrieved via client.payments().all().withCustomer(customerId) as explained here.

  • The code then iterates through the payment objects and obtains the Payment object corresponding to the kbPaymentId passed in. If you recall, the purchasePayment method sends kbPaymentId and kbTransactionId to GoCardless as metadata fields. Thus, the kbPaymentId is retrieved from the metadata of each Payment object and compared with the kbPaymentId passed in.

  • The code then creates a GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin corresponding to a matching `Payment`using the following:

    • killBillCurrency - The GoCardless currency (com.gocardless.resources.Payment.Currency) is retrieved from the payment object and converted to Kill Bill currency (org.killbill.billing.catalog.api.Currency).

    • status - The GoCardless status (com.gocardless.resources.Payment.Status) is retrieved from the payment object and converted to Kill Bill status (org.killbill.billing.payment.plugin.api.PaymentPluginStatus).

    • kbTransactionId - This is retrieved from the payment metadata. This step is very important because, the Janitor uses the transaction id to match the internal transactions with the plugin transactions as explained earlier.

    • outputProperties - This is a List of PluginProperty objects. Some PluginProperty objects are created and added to the outputProperties List. Any arbitrary key-value pairs which need to be returned to the caller can be specified here.

  • The List of GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object is returned back.

  • The Janitor then updates the internal payment state as well as invoice balance, etc. based on the information in the GoCardlessPaymentTransactionInfoPlugin object.

  • In addition to the Janitor, the getPaymentInfo can also be used used on the merchant website (or in Kaui) to display the payment details to the customer. In such cases, it is invoked via an API call as specified here. An important point to note is that the actual plugin method (GoCardlessPluginApi#getPaymentInfo) is invoked only when the withPluginInfo=true is specified in the API call. If withPluginInfo=false is specified, the plugin method is not invoked and Kill Bill just returns the payment information from the Kill Bill database.

Step 8 - Creating GoCardlessCheckoutServlet

In the case of GoCardless, we need to create an additional servlet that invokes the GoCardlessPluginApi#buildFormDescriptor method. Normally, a client API invokes buildFormDescriptor via the PaymentGatewayApi interface. If you take a look at the PaymentGatewayApi#buildFormDescriptor method, you will notice that it accepts a UUID paymentMethodId as a parameter. Thus, this method assumes that a payment method already exists. (You can read the payment user guide to know more about payment methods). However, in the case of GoCardless, we are using GoCardlessPluginApi#buildFormDescriptor to create a form where a user sets up a mandate. Thus, the payment method will not exist in Kill Bill at the time of invoking the PaymentGatewayApi#buildFormDescriptor method. So, this method cannot directly invoke the GoCardlessPlugin#buildFormDescriptor method. To work around this, we need to create a servlet and invoke the GoCardlessPlugin#buildFormDescriptor method from this servlet. The client application can invoke this servlet and not the PaymentGatewayApi#buildFormDescriptor method

This servlet can be created as follows:

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@Singleton
// Handle /plugins/killbill-gocardless/checkout
@Path("/checkout")
public class GoCardlessCheckoutServlet {
    private final OSGIKillbillClock clock;
    private final GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi goCardlessPaymentPluginApi;
    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(GoCardlessCheckoutServlet.class);
    @Inject
    public GoCardlessCheckoutServlet(final OSGIKillbillClock clock,
                                     final GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi goCardlessPaymentPluginApi) {
        this.clock = clock;
        this.goCardlessPaymentPluginApi = goCardlessPaymentPluginApi;
    }
    // Setting up Direct Debit mandates using Hosted Payment Pages, before a payment method has been added to the account
    @POST
    public Result createSession(@Named("kbAccountId") final UUID kbAccountId,
                                @Named("success_redirect_url") final Optional<String> successUrl,
                                @Named("redirect_flow_description") final Optional<String> description,
                                @Named("lineItemName") final Optional<String> token,
                                @Local @Named("killbill_tenant") final Tenant tenant) throws PaymentPluginApiException {
    	logger.info("Inside createSession");
        final CallContext context = new PluginCallContext(GoCardlessActivator.PLUGIN_NAME, clock.getClock().getUTCNow(), kbAccountId, tenant.getId());
        final ImmutableList<PluginProperty> properties = ImmutableList.of(
                new PluginProperty("success_redirect_url", successUrl.orElse("https://developer.gocardless.com/example-redirect-uri/"), false),
                new PluginProperty("redirect_flow_description", description.orElse("Kill Bill payment"), false),
                new PluginProperty("session_token", token.orElse("killbill_token"), false));
        final HostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor hostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor = goCardlessPaymentPluginApi.buildFormDescriptor(kbAccountId,
                ImmutableList.of(),
                properties,
                context);
        return Results.with(hostedPaymentPageFormDescriptor, Status.CREATED)
                .type(MediaType.json);
    }
}
  • The servlet is mapped to the /checkout path. Thus, a client application needs to make a request to this path to invoke the servlet

  • The createSession accepts properties corresponding to clock and goCardlessPaymentPluginApi. These are injected via the GoCardlessActivator class as explained below

  • It then creates PluginProperty objects corresponding to the values passed in as parameters

  • Finally, it invokes the GoCardlessPlugin#buildFormDescriptor method

Step 9 - Creating GoCardlessActivator

We also need to create a class similar to HelloWorldActivator that starts the plugin. We can create this class as follows:

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public class GoCardlessActivator extends KillbillActivatorBase{
//This is the plugin name and is used by Kill Bill to route payment to the appropriate payment plugin
	public static final String PLUGIN_NAME = "killbill-gocardless";
	@Override
    public void start(final BundleContext context) throws Exception {
        super.start(context);
        final GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi pluginApi = new GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi(killbillAPI,clock.getClock());
        registerPaymentPluginApi(context, pluginApi);
        // Register the servlet, which is used as the entry point to generate the Hosted Payment Pages redirect url
        final PluginApp pluginApp = new PluginAppBuilder(PLUGIN_NAME, killbillAPI, dataSource, super.clock, configProperties)
                .withRouteClass(GoCardlessCheckoutServlet.class)
                .withService(pluginApi)
                .withService(clock)
                .build();
        final HttpServlet goCardlessServlet = PluginApp.createServlet(pluginApp);
        registerServlet(context, goCardlessServlet);
    }
    private void registerPaymentPluginApi(final BundleContext context, final PaymentPluginApi api) {
        final Hashtable<String, String> props = new Hashtable<String, String>();
        props.put(OSGIPluginProperties.PLUGIN_NAME_PROP, PLUGIN_NAME);
        registrar.registerService(context, PaymentPluginApi.class, api, props);
    }
    private void registerServlet(final BundleContext context, final HttpServlet servlet) {
        final Hashtable<String, String> props = new Hashtable<String, String>();
        props.put(OSGIPluginProperties.PLUGIN_NAME_PROP, PLUGIN_NAME);
        registrar.registerService(context, Servlet.class, servlet, props);
    }
}
  • The GoCardlessActivator class defines a static field called PLUGIN_NAME with the value killbill-gocardless. This is the name of the plugin and will be used by Kill Bill to route payment to the appropriate plugin as explained in our Payment User Guide

  • The start method creates a new GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi object

  • It then invokes the registerPaymentPluginApi method which registers the plugin with the PLUGIN_NAME. This code is pretty standard across all plugins and can be used as it is

  • In the case of GoCardless, we need to create a checkout servlet as explained above. The start method creates this servlet via PluginAppBuilder as follows:

    • withRouteClass specifies the name of the servlet, in this case GoCardlessCheckoutServlet

    • withService specifies pluginApi. Since the GoCardlessCheckoutServlet accepts a parameter corresponding to GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi, this is injected via withService

    • Similarly, since GoCardlessPaymentPluginApi accepts a parameter corresponding to OSGIKillbillClock, a clock object is injected via withService

    • Any other values that need to be passed to the servlet can be injected similarly

    • The build method is invoked which creates pluginApp

    • Finally, the servlet is created via PluginApp.createServlet

  • The registerServlet method is then invoked which registers the servlet

Step 10 - Build and Deployment

The GoCardless plugin can be built and deployed as per the build and deployment instructions specified in our plugin development document.

Step 11 - Testing

Once the plugin is deployed successfully, it can be tested using curl commands as specified here.